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Psychology Flashcards



Psychology

1) Behaviorism : A theory of learning that focuses soley on observing behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping. John B. Watson coined this term.
2) Associative Learning : Occurs when we make a connection or an association between two events.
3) Observational Learning : Learning that takes place when a person observes and imitates anothers behavior.
4) Classical Conditioning : A neutral stimulus (the sound of toilet water flushing) becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus (the pain of scalding hot water) and acquired the capacity to elicit a similar response (panic).
5) Operant Conditioning : "instrumental conditioning" is a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behaviors consequence. Psychologist B.F. Skinner developed this concept.

Created on October 08, 2013 by
61 card(s)
Autumn Weaver
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Chapter 2 Psychology flash cards

1) physilogical process : are intrested in the physical processs that underlines mental operations such as vision and memory
2) What do physilogical psychologists do : May use animal models (that is, they may employ animals such as rats to study process that are diffcult or impossible to study the same way in humans
3) Behavioral Neuro Science : focuses on biological process, especially that brain's role in behavior
4) Sensation and Precepition : focuses on the physical systems and psychlogical process that allow us to experience the world- to smell or to see
5) Learning : Is the iricate process by which behavior changes to adapt to changes circumstances

Created on June 14, 2013 by
17 card(s)
Mark G
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krista's flashcard
flashcards are the the best thinks ever in the world ever
1) see : sees
2) call : calls
3) your : you
4) animal : animals
5) horse : ponys

Created on March 07, 2013 by
20 card(s)
krista lewisbrown
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Neuroscience definitions
Definitions of neuroscience terms.
1) Neuroscience : The study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
2) Neuron : Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cells
3) Sensory neuron : Type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs.
4) Motor neuron : Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract.
5) Interneuron : Type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next

Created on February 06, 2013 by
31 card(s)
Christina Faraday
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Adolescense Chapter 1 Vocabulary
Adolescence book by Laurence Steinberg
1) menarche : The time of first menstruation, one of the most important changes to occur among females during puberty.
2) endocrine system : The system of the body that produces,circulates, and regulates hormones.
3) hormones : Highly specialized substances secreted by one or more endocrine glands.
4) glads : Organs that stimulate particular parts of the body to respond in specific ways to particular hormones.
5) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. : Specialized neurons that are activated by certain pubertal hormones.

Created on December 14, 2012 by
37 card(s)
ivonne T
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AP Psychology Terms Chapter 5 Flashcard

1) Sensation : the process by which our sensory receptors & nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
2) Perception : the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
3) Bottom-Up Processing : Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
4) Top-Down Processing : Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
5) Psychophysics : The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

Created on November 15, 2012 by
15 card(s)
Academic Support Room 318
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BioPsych part 2

1) Steriod Hormones : hydrophobic/lipophilic...small-may travel trhough skin with help of hydrochloric acid..travel in blood with carrier..cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors...change protein synthesis..example is estradiol
2) Amine : synthesized from a single amino acid..melatonin: from trytophan. Thyroid hormone: from tyosine.
3) Eicosanoid : Produced from 20-carbon fatty adic, arachadonic acid. Produced in all cells except RbC. Second messenger. Prostoaglandins and leukotrienes. Meidates inflammation and immune responses
4) Hypothalamic-Pituatiary Axis : Mediates growth, metabolism, stress response, reproduction. Second in charge of almost everything else: thyotrophs, corticotropjs, gonadotrophs
5) Neurosecretory Cells in hypothalamus : Nuclei synthesize and secrete hormones...neuronal connection to posterior pituitary...antidiurectic hormone (ADH) oxytocin

Created on November 05, 2012 by
6 card(s)
Academic Support Room 318
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Biopsych Christina Smith

1) Thalamus : recieves and coordinates majority of sensory information-except smell.Located below cerebral cortex(controls all of the signals)
2) Hypothalamus : Regulates Bodily functions like hunger/thirst...reward center...controls pituitary gland
3) Hippocampus : formation of memories**flashbulb memories...example is clive wearing
4) Limbic System : amygdala..influences aggression and fear
5) Sex Hormones-Estrogen : found in both sexes, important in dev. primary sex characteristics like ovaries before birth and in puberty..emotions...causes female secondary sex characteristcs like breasts, hips

Created on November 05, 2012 by
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Academic Support Room 318
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cognitive final
cognitive final
1) Describe overt and covert attention : overt - observable - shifting attention by moving the eyes from one place to another Covert: shifting attention without moving the eyes
2) Describe COLIN CHERRY's experiment, What is Dichotic Listening? What is Shadowing? : Headphones, 2 different messages (one in the left ear, one in the right ear) they were told to focus on one message and ignore the other (this shows that people can focus their attention) - Dichotic listening: when two messages are presented in different ears, focusing on one message and not retaining much information from the other Shadowing: repeating the message with a short delay after hearing it
3) Describle NEVILLE MORRAY's experiment? What is cocktail party effect? : participants were told to focus on one message however when their name was presented in the unattended ear 1/3rd of people were able to detect it. This is called the cocktail party effect - when a person is selectively listening to a message but hears their name or another distinctive message such as FIRE!
4) Describe BROADBENT's early selection model What does the filter do? What does the detector do? : it was a flow diagram- information passes through stages - message --> sensory memory --> filter (the attended message is here) --> detector --> memory FILTER: processes the information based on physical characteristics such as pitch and tone of voice. DETECTOR: processes information using higher level characteristics such as meaning
5) Describe GRAY and WEDDERBURN "Dear Aunt Jane" what is the significance of this experiment? : Participants heard "Dear 7 Jane" in the attended ear and 9 Aunt 6" in the unattended ear - but when they reported what they had heard most said "Dear Aunt Jane" - this illustrates that they had to shift attention between both ears because it was a combination of both messages - this experiment led to the modification of broadbent's flow theory - TREISMAN's model

Created on April 06, 2012 by
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Jason
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Cognitive Psychology
Psych
1) Short-term Memory : Holds onto information currently in use; It is instant and easily available.
2) Serial Position Curve : A U-Shaped curve that describes the relation between position within the series.
3) Primacy Effect : Likely to remember the first few words (Long-term memory)
4) Recency Effect : Likely to remember the last few words (working memory)
5) Serial Position Curve and the Modal Model : Working memory contains the material someone is working on at thiat moment. However, it can only hold 5 or 6 words. LTM comes into play bc people repeat the first words over and over again.

Created on February 27, 2012 by
43 card(s)
Nicole Caouette
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Psychological Terms
A quiz on glossary psychological terminology.
1) Addiction : A condition in which the body requires a drug in order to function without physical and psychological reactions to its absence; often the outcome of tolerance and dependence.
2) Ageism : Prejudice against older people, similar to racism and sexism in its negative stereotypes.
3) Aggression : Behaviors that cause psychological or physical harm to another individual.
4) Altruism : Prosocial behaviors a person carries out without considering his or her own safety or interests.
5) Behavior : The actions by which an organism adjusts to its environment.

Created on January 15, 2012 by
10 card(s)
Conar Delhomme
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