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1) blarg : blah

Created on June 01, 2015 by
1 note(s)
Bailey Millis

Phonological Disorders
Final Exam
1) Phonological Disorder – “Speech-Sound Disorder” Speech – physical, motor output of language Language – a shared symbolic system for communication ( among a community of users) 4 modalities ( speaking, listening, reading, writing) Communication – doesn’t have as many governing rules as does language. Transfer of info from sender to receiver * requires sender and receiver ( note that the meaning of [written] language is not dependent on its being received) Language Phonological Disorders – involve difficulty acquiring rules that underlie speech Articulation Disorders – involve difficulty producing speech (Motor) Speech-Sound Disorder – is a general term that is neutral as to the cause of the disorder - appears in childhood and not due to speech mechanism, sensory systems, PNS, or CNS - not resultant of dialect or influences from other languages - considered a disorder by child’s community --- The most prevalent (33%) type of communication disorder - Found in 10-16 percent of preschoolers - 80% of SSD’s require therapy 50-70% of SSDs will have academic difficulties that last through high school Infants – read BW 112-125 ASHA page on SSDs ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Stage 1- age 2 stage 2 – age 3-4 stage 3 preschool ( 4- 5/6) : Stage 3 of phonological development: Preschool or “rule-learning period” --- early stage 3: * words begin with unstressed syllable --- later stage 3: 3-syllable words with primary stress on any syllable ~ English is primarily trochaic and monosyllabic ?? ( trochee [def] a foot consisting of one long or stressed syllable followed by one short or unstressed syllable.) - demonstrate the most growth in language learning and production. Same issues with perception ( in unfamiliar topics, fast speech, and longer phrases) as in stage 2 - misperceptions tend to phase out by end of stage 3 - age 5: 2600 expressive, 9600 receptive words. Advancement of production noted in intelligibility, vowels, consonants, and stress patterns 2 years 26-50% 3 71-80 4 Near 100 *Intelligibility *Vowels: typically acquire all vowels ( other than rhotisized) with no production errors by age 3 most problematic vowels are 1) dipthongs 2) rhotic and 3) unstressed vowels for multisyllabic words ( they get omitted?) - by age 3, relative analysis ( relative to adult model0 more useful than independent (??) Advancements – Consonants - early developing: stops, nasals, glides - mild acquisitions: affricates, liquids, fricatives - late acquisitions: interdental fricatives --- interdental fricatives are difficult for English speaking kids because 1) they occur less often in the English language and 2) they have a high frequency and so a child with hearing loss may not be able to hear them )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Consonant Clusters ( english: both initial and final word position) - typically no c-clusters at age 2 - and consonant clusters are correct 30% of the time at age 3 - nearly all c-cs are mastered by age 5 ~ note thate c-cs are easier in word-final than word-initial )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Syllable shapes - cv the most common ( same in adulthood) - onset and rimes contain more clusters ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Syllable structure processes - child does to simplify structure of syllable . includes - reduplication - weak (unstressed) syllable deletion – final consonant deletion – cluster reduction – epenthesis - substitution * backing is unusual and therefore a red flag for disorder. Fronting and gliding are more common *substitution is more complex than deletion and we would hope to see in later stages of development ** we should not see (hear) reduplication past early stage 3 - deletion of entire cluster should stop after age 2, otherwise signifies a problem Velar Harmony Regressive ( more common) Dog ( daeg ) Gog ( gaeg) Progrssive Dog Dod ( daed) See ‘ disappearing and persisting patterns’ slide )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) -Mismatches btwen perception and production are common in the first half of stage 3 - deletions and repetitions rare - substitutions persist Types of substitution VOICE MANNER PLACE - prevocalic - stopping - interdentals - final consonant deletion - gliding - postalveolars - velars 2 major advancements in speech/ communication 1 * leaving familiar world * must be able to use sounds/ words to communicate with others and satisfy needs 2. * syntax * sentences of 4+ words by age 5 * embedding by 4;6 ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Speech processes * most common fricative in stage 2 ( babbling stage) is H * otherwise, generally comprised of stops and nasals Emergent literacy * alphabet knowledge/ awareness * emergent writing * print awareness (that it has form and function) * ( shallow) phonological awareness -- age 5 shows an overlap between preschool ( emergent literacy) and reading ( conventional literacy) Phonological awareness - note distinction between general phonology and (deep) phonetics - highly correlated with reading outcomes through age (grade?) 12 - sensitivity to sound structure of words - begins around age 2 - moves shallow to deep Shallow: - sensitivity to larger units - segment sentences into words - segment multisyllabic words in syllables - detect and produce rhymes Rhyme – substituting with different onset and using old/ same nucleus and coda Writing v drawing - product is indistinguishable - different motor plans/ behavior - writing involves lifting pencil off page, with more interrupted movements - drawing involves wide, continuous, circular movements Supraordinate features of writing (see ppt) - directionality – linearity – distinguishable units – regularity of blanks (spaces) – language general ( generalizes across languages) Ordinate features - language specifics ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) - removal of both( all) members of a cluster is rare and suggests SSD Cluster deletion/ substitution - note that substitution may entail/ mean: a) whole cluster missing b) 1 member missing c) 1 or both members changed - final consonant deletion. Only applies to singleton clusters - frontal is a normal process - lateral list involves backing and is disordered *** see processes wksheets, readings, and handout for exam - don’t worry about stridency deletion or depalitization Labials: p, v, f, m, v ( w – glide) R and L are often produced as w. L may be produced as w - don’t worry about labialization ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) School-age speech development Still improving skills of perception ( like phoneme categorization ) - full development wont occur till age 14 ( but most occurs between 5 and 9) Ability to understand structures in difficult listening conditions still developing up until the age of 15 ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Early stage 4 – unusual interpretations of misperceived words/ phrases - may incrase as child encounters new complex words and intonation - may have difficulty when exposed to a wider range o fcommunication styles and discourse functions Production – kids sound fairly adult-like but may struggle with … see slide THE LATE 8: - As well as r clusters and three-member clusters - difficult vowels (up until age 5) are those that are rhotisized _________________________________________________________________ Morphological alternations difficult Divine – divinity ( stressed vowel changes from /ai/ to /i/) Collide – collision Late acquisitions Syllables: * complex syllable structures : electronics (v-cvc-ccv-vcvcc) Stress * lots of variation, but English tends to stress the first syllable - learning that stress patterns can differentiate between compound words and adj + noun ( in hotdog, the stress is either on hot, or on hot and dog equally. If we were going to describe a dog as hot, we’d put more stress on dog. ) Deep phonological suggests phonemic ( as well as explicit, analytical) Tasks to check for phonemic understanding: phonemic matching, phonemic isolation, phonemic deletion, reversal, manipulation. Article on phoneme awareness on canvas. Other four areas for reading : phonics, fluency, covabulary, comprehension - without PA, children are forced to rely on reading by a whole word strategy through memorization - likely to be poorest readers, even by 1st grade - strong PA skills characteristic of good readers. “Fluent”- applied differently for reading than for speech Fluent reading should have natural expression, intonation, pauses. And generally be about 75 wpm for middle school and 150 for high school _____________________________________________________________ Speech-sound disorders - 4% of six-year-old children will approach reading with a speech impairment - children with artic disorders ( motor-based) are not at high risk for literacy difficulties ~ However, the majority of the 4% with a speech impairment will have a phonological impairment and this does negatively impact reading. -- this is going to be exacerbated as the child moves from phonological into phonemic awareness 50 % of kids with phonological impairments + one other impairment will fail to read by 3rd-4th grade

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