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Conflicts with American Indians

** Constantly being pushed off land by force or treaty

** Jefferson’s solution: convert into settled farmers and become assimilated into White society; or, migrate west of the Mississippi.

** William Henry Harrison (of Virginia) had been assigned to be governor of the Indiana territory. He enforces Jefferson’s “solution”

** Similar policy in southern United States . . . assimilate or leave. . . Love it or Leave it!!!

** In the Ohio Valley and Northwest territories an Indian Confederation developed.

** A Shawnee, known as The Prophet, spread in revival fashion his story of spiritual enlightenment after he rejected the ways of the white settlers

*** His brother, Tecumseh, organized The Prophet’s followers into a united confederation against white settlers.

**** The Prophet established a large village along Tippecanoe Creek. . . Known as Prophetstown

*** The Tecumseh Confederation was gaining strength in the Ohio Valley and Northwest. They were being supplied arms and ammunition by the British in Canada

** Tecumseh journeyed to southern United States in an attempt to get more tribes to join his confederation. . . He was unsuccessful

*** While he was gone, an army commanded by Harrison attacked and completely destroyed Prophetstown. (Battle of Tippecanoe) Killed the Prophet.

**** Tecumseh returns to find his Confederacy in disarray.

***** In retaliation, many unorganized but brutal attacks on settlers by the Indians supplied by Britain.

*** Only way to resolve the issue is to attack Canada and the British.

** In the South, American settlers had their eye on Spanish Florida

** Escaped slaves ended up there

*** Indians would conduct raids, armed by Spanish

**** Wanted access to rivers and Gulf ports for trade

** Plans were being made for to get control of Florida

** Spain was now allied with Great Britain

*** War Hawks (new Republican leaders in Congress) continue clamor for war with Great Britain

* Congress gave three good reasons for war with Great Britain. . . Britain continued to harass American shipping and practice impressments. . . Great Britain was arming the Indians in the Ohio Valley and Northwest Territory. . . Acquisition of Florida

* President Madison signs declaration of war with Great Britain June 18,1812



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